Despite some positive aspects of government development programs reported by members of the San and Bakgalagadi communities in Botswana, many have spoken of a consistent sense of exclusion from government decision-making processes, and many San and Bakgalagadi have alleged experiencing ethnic discrimination on the part of the government.
Various terms—including San, Bushmen and Basarwa—have been used to refer to them collectively.
The Kalahari San remained in poverty where their richer neighbours denied them rights to the land.
Early spring is the hardest season: a hot dry period following the cool, dry winter.
Most plants still are dead or dormant, and supplies of autumn nuts are exhausted.
Various Y chromosome studies show that the San carry some of the most divergent (oldest) human Y-chromosome haplogroups.
These haplogroups are specific sub-groups of haplogroups A and B, the two earliest branches on the human Y-chromosome tree.
Women are mainly involved in the gathering of food, but may also take part in hunting. Droughts may last many months and waterholes may dry up. To get water this way, a San scrapes a deep hole where the sand is damp.