Pioneering ancient DNA studies have also proven unreliable due to possible contamination from people handling the bones.
If you are unfamiliar with haplogroups or population genetics, we recommend that you familiarise yourself first with the basics by viewing the Video Tutorials about genetics and read our Frequently Asked Questions about DNA tests.
Each haplogroup corresponds to a distinct ancestral lineage.
Studies testing only the HVR-1 region of mt DNA also typically fail to deliver unambiguous results.
NB : The age of ancient cultures is indicated in 'years before present', abbreviated as 'ybp'.
Northwest Africans would also have brought U6 and possibly HV0/V lineages to Europe.